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We believe the creation of a defensive state at the heart of Euroasia should be to the benefit of the citizenry and promote peace and democracy in the world.

The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), conducted in 2004, was a groundbreaking study that evaluated the impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Let’s delve into the details:

Europe Posted on Sun, February 04, 2024 23:08:03

  1. ACIA Overview:
    • The ACIA was initiated in response to a request from the Ministers of the Arctic Council. It aimed to synthesize knowledge on climate variability, change, and increased ultraviolet radiation in the Arctic.
    • The assessment involved over 250 scientists and six circumpolar indigenous peoples’ organizations.
    • Its objective was to assess the environmental, human health, social, cultural, and economic impacts of climate change in the Arctic, providing valuable policy recommendations.
  2. Key Findings:
  3. Social Science Integration:
  4. IPCC Connection:

Now, let’s explore the IPCC’s work on polar regions:

  1. IPCC Reports on Polar Regions:
  2. Different Focus:

In summary, the ACIA laid the groundwork for understanding Arctic climate assesment, but has gradually been substituted for reasons of lack of manpower, administartive reorganisation and delegation from CPH to Nuuk, the progresss in technologies – satelittes and remote sensing – and the greater interest in the IPCC’s broader assessments of polar regions and their relevance to global climate dynamics. Both efforts contribute vital information for informed decision-making and climate action.

What about glaciers ?

  1. World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS):
  1. Greenland:
  1. Himalayas:
  1. Role of AI in Glacier Monitoring:
    • AI has revolutionized glacier surveillance:
      • Crevasse Detection: Scientists have developed AI algorithms to identify crevasses in radar images. For instance, the Thwaites Glacier Ice Tongue in West Antarctica is monitored using AI techniques.
      • Change Detection: Machine learning helps analyze radar images over time, identifying glacier speed changes and fracture formation.
      • Predictive Modeling: AI aids in predicting glacier behavior and assessing risks to coastal communities.
      • Data Fusion: AI combines satellite data, field measurements, and climate models for comprehensive glacier assessments.

In summary, global efforts like the WGMS, combined with AI advancements, enhance our understanding of glacier dynamics. These initiatives are crucial for informed climate action and sustainable water resource management.

Shippers and sailors navigating the Greenlandic waters may also benfit from Artificial Intelligence (AI) in weather forecasting. Let’s explore how AI can enhance weather predictions and whether decentralization is underway:

  1. GraphCast: AI for Global Weather Forecasting:
    • GraphCast, developed by Google DeepMind, is a state-of-the-art AI model for medium-range weather forecasts.
    • Key features:
  2. Greenland Waters and Sea Ice:
  3. Decentralization:
    • While centralized systems like the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) provide global forecasts, there’s a trend toward decentralization:

In summary, AI-driven weather models like GraphCast and localized efforts by institutions like DMI contribute to more accurate and efficient forecasts. Decentralization allows tailored predictions for specific regions, benefiting shippers, sailors, and communities in Greenlandic water

https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg2/chapter/ccp6/

https://acia.amap.no/

https://wgms.ch/

https://www.esa.int/Applications/Observing_the_Earth/Copernicus/Sentinel-1/Sentinel-1_and_AI_uncover_glacier_crevasses

https://www.esa.int/Applications/Observing_the_Earth/Revealing_invisible_Himalaya_glacier_loss

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2023.979782/full

https://deepmind.google/discover/blog/graphcast-ai-model-for-faster-and-more-accurate-global-weather-forecasting/



FRAMEWORK ACCORD BETWEEN ISRAEL AND LEBANON

Middle East Posted on Sun, February 04, 2024 16:20:27

  1. Preamble

The State of Israel and The Arab Republic of Lebanon

Having regard  to their desire for establishing business-like relations based on cooperation

and conflict and their commitment to good neighbourliness as democracies and market economies;

Affirming    that this agreement is concluded within the framework of UNSCR 1397 &  

1525 and 1701;

Reiterating              their adherence to the principles of the Barcelona-declaration;

Determined             to open a new chapter in their relations in the common pursuit of peace and

                prosperity;

Confirming             the principle of land for peace in terms of UNSCR 242 & 338;

Recognizing            the contribution of comprehensive peace to a Middle Eastern state system

free of political interference and interactions respective of each other’s iden-tities;

Have agreed as following

2. Peace Agreement

A peace agreement between Israel and Lebanon is to be concluded five years from the conclusion of this accord, at which point full diplomatic relations will be established.

3. Border Commission

A Border Commission is established towards the delimitation of the land, sea and air borders between Israel and Lebanon, whose work is to be finalised during the course of this agreement.

4. Political Dialogue

A high-level political dialogue will be established between the parties in order to address and better understand mutual perceptions of security/insecurity.

A Regular Dialogue between the IDF’s Northern Command and the Lebanese Army’s Southern Command as well as the parties’ respective Border Police Commanders are to be conducted for the management of the parties’ border towards the dismantlement of the UNIFIL-mission accor-ding to separate agreements.

The delimitation of the Maritime Borders will be undertaken using the newest technological advances, and otherwise as well serve the purpose of joint exploitation of the sea bed as con-venient.

  1. Water

In order to ensure the development and deepening of bilateral relations, the parties agree to enter into agreements concerning water sharing pending the resolution of outstanding issues on water-ways crossing their mutual border, and agree to cooperate with regional and global institutions in developing their mutual interests in the policy area, without prejudice to third parties’ rights and interests.

  1. Peace and Conflict

A comprehensive programme to address all levels of peace-building between the parties are established at the conclusion of this accord.

Lebanon undertakes to assume full sovereignty over its territory and to disarm and reintegrate mercenaries and proxy-forces into regular army and law enforcement units, and otherwise as well integrate former fighters into society.

Israel undertakes to pursue peace agreements with both the Palestinian National Authority and with Syria, upon which comprehensive peace in the Middle East are hinged.

Israel undertakes to make $1bn available for UNRWA to address the plight of Palestinean refugees, residing or having taken refuge in Lebanon, resulting from war, towards settlement of this refugee issue without prejudice to the rights of third parties under international law.

  1. Peaceful Relations

Haifa University and the Issam Fares Institute will steer pertinent research projects and dialo-gues amongst academics of both countries and in the region in order to improve the mutual understanding for each other interests and concerns and the process through which images of enmities and friendship may arise and dissolve.

People-to people programmes will be established to underpin this dialogue.

8. Cooperation

The parties intends to conclude a bilateral free trade agreement to supplement normalisation of links, following the conclusion of a peace agreement(s), no later than five years from the initial-ling of this framework accord.

Explorative talks in both regards may be undertaken in due course.

  1. Entry into Force & Arbitration

This accord is subject to ratification according to the procedures provided for in the legislation of each Contracting Parties, and comes into force on the day of exchange of documents of rati-fication.

The accord shall be deposited in the Foreign Ministries of the contracting parties in English, Arab and Hebrew version, as notified to the UN Secretariat by virtue of the UN-Charter Article 102.

Should disagreement arise over the implementation of these articles, the parties agree to submit them to arbitration at the International Court of Justice ( ICJ).

Done,                                                                        March 202x

For Israel                                                                                         For Lebanon

Annexes:

UN MAP of The Blue Line

Terms of References of the Lebanese-Israeli Border Commission

Agreement between IDF and the Lebanese Army concerning Border Security